Research Methods

The Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne Effect is a situation where an individual or group of people know they are being observed and so change their behaviour accordingly. This is why some researchers favour covert observation. It is a term coined by Henry A. Landsberger in the 1950s, and is taken from the Western Electric Hawthorne Works that were located just outside of Chicago, and was the subject of research conducted in the 1920s and 30s.

This 30 minute Radio 4 Mind Changers programme below looks at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works and examines how management were keen to improve productivity. In this broadcast, Claudia Hammond presents a fascinating insight into the different strategies used and the rather surprising results:

Discover More Mind Changers series looking at the development of the science of psychology

A fabulous source of wider reading on this topic, as well as some original photographs which provide a great talking point for students, can be found within the Harvard Business School website:


Discover More What Mayo, orthodoxy of modern management

  Questions to consider can include:
  • What is the Hawthorne Effect?

  • What is a time and motion study?

  • What was the Hawthorne illumination study? What is interesting about the findings?

  • What other alterations to the working environment were made? What impact did such alterations have on worker output/productivity?

  • Why are the informal groups in the workplace deemed to be relevant to the research?

  • Is overt research therefore always the best way to conduct research?

Students could then be encouraged to consider the extent to which their behaviour changes when they are being observed (perhaps during lesson observations).


More Resources from Discovering Sociology

The Legacy of Thatcherism


Politics Teacher Resource

Pressure Groups

Pressure groups play a key role in the political system. They tend..

Politics Teacher Resource


Absolutism is a political theory that suggests that power should b..

Politics Teacher Resource


The infamous ‘Anarchy in the UK’ by the Sex Pistols could be playi..

Politics Teacher Resource


A good overview of conservatism is provided by the Encyclopaedia B..

Politics Teacher Resource

Elite Theory

Elite theory is the notion that power is concentrated in the hands..

Politics Teacher Resource

Introduction to the Political System

A range of resources are available to help with an introductory se..

Politics Teacher Resource


Here students could be set the task of ‘teaching the teacher’ on l..

Politics Teacher Resource


Robert Dahl (1961) suggested that modern societies are characteris..

Politics Teacher Resource

Political Protest

Political protests have and do exist on a continuum from the peace..

Politics Teacher Resource

About our Organisation

The British Sociological Association (BSA) is the largest sociological network in the UK.

The BSA promotes Sociology, supports sociologists, and is the public face of Sociology in Britain.

Membership of the BSA is open to everyone interested in the study of society from a sociological perspective. For information on BSA membership and to join, please visit

Sociology Teacher

The Sociology Teacher Archive

The Sociology Teacher, is now available for FREE to download which includes articles written by leading academics in the Social Sciences, reviews of published books and other informative editorial

& Study Groups

We actively promote the study of Sociology by running a wide range of events and public lectures across the UK. Visit our Events page to find out about our upcoming events. 

The BSA operates a network of over 40 study groups and several special interest groups. Visit the BSA Groups page to find out more.

BSA Members can learn about the highlights of the Association's activities and challenges in the previous year in our Annual Review.


Subscribe to our Discover Sociology Updates and receive links to the latest articles, Sociology News and Events

Prove you're not a robot *

Chancery Court, Belmont Business Park, Durham DH1 1TW |